The only tiger reserve in Bihar, this sanctuary has ample flora and fauna to delight wildlife lovers.
Valmiki Tiger Reserve forms the eastern most limit of the Himalayan Terai forests in India, and is the only tiger reserve of Bihar. Situated in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic zone of the country, the forest has combination of bhabar and terai tracts. Valmiki Tiger Reserve lies in the north-westernmost West Champaran district of Bihar. Name of the district has been derived from two words Champa and Aranya meaning Forest of Champa trees.
Wild mammals found in the forests of Valmiki Tiger Reserve are Tiger, Sloth bear, Leopard, Wild dog, Bison, Wild boar etc. Several species of deer and antelopes viz barking deer, spotted deer, hog deer, sambar and blue bull are also found here. In Madanpur forest block large number of Indian flying foxes can be sighted. The Reserve has rich avi-fauna diversity. Over 250 species of birds have been reported.
Valmiki Sanctuary covers about 800 square kilometres (310 sq mi) of forest and was the 18th tiger reserve established in India. It is ranked fourth in terms density of tiger population. Valmikinagar is located nearly 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Bettiah in the northernmost part of the West Champaran district, Bihar, bordering Nepal. Valmikinagar is a small town with scattered habitation, mostly within the forest area and has a railroad station in the district of West Champaran, close to the railhead of Narkatiaganj. It has diverse landscapes, sheltering rich wildlife habitats and floral and faunal composition with the prime protected carnivores and was included in the National Conservation Programme of the Project Tiger in the year 1994. As per Zoological Survey of India's report of 1998 the sanctuary is reported to shelter 53 mammals, 145 birds, 26 reptile and 13 amphibians and Tiger Reserve.
The notable species of wild fauna include: tiger, leopard, wild dog, wild boar, bison, bear, peacock, partridge, hornbill, hill mynah, woolly-necked stork, python, crocodile, deer, sambar, blue bull, barking deer, hog deer.
As per the Botanical Survey of India report of 1998 there are seven types of vegetation consisting of seven classes of forests; home to 84 species of trees (subtropical trees such as sal, sagwan, bamboo, and cane), 32 shrubs and climbers and 81 herbs and grasses.